Rosie Mouse and the Big Bad Wolf
Critical theorists do not deny that individual beliefs figure in racism. But we prefer to emphasize its collective, cultural dimensions, and to avoid singling out individuals and trying to decide whether they are racists or not. Furthermore, critical theorists insist that ordinary people who do not share White supremacist beliefs can still talk and behave in ways that advance the projects of White racism. Hill 7. Ethnic stereotypes were, of course, not uncommon in films of the early Thirties, and were usually essayed in a free-wheeling spirit of fun, with no malice intended.
By the time the film was reissued in This may well be within their legal rights, but in the end it amounts to limiting and censoring discourse. It is likely that many younger readers are not familiar with the visual stereotypes that were so common prior to World War II. Discriminatory and extreme stereotyping has not been limited to Disney, as can be seen by the short compilation of cartoon clips by liquidgeneration.
Kaufman recounts that the antisemitic depiction of the wolf as a Jewish peddler remained intact until Three Little Pigs was re-released in , 14 years later.
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At that time the Jewish peddler was replaced with an all-around rough guy see the third image above , and then only because of pressure from the Hays Office [ref]In , the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America M. The office charged with this duty was put under the direction of Will H. Hays, and went into effect on July 1, The Hays Office outlined general standards of good taste and specifically forbade certain elements in film.
Hence the sympathy of the audience should never be thrown to the side of crime, wrongdoing, evil or sin. The Code specifically addressed the inadvisability of caricaturing national origin groups or portraying them in offensive ways.
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In a Rating system was put into effect, and the Code was no longer used. Grant 54 reports that Disney later admitted that the original scene was in bad taste. In addition to the visual clues, the actor who supplied the voice for the wolf used a strong Yiddish accent to make the stereotype complete. It was the first language of many Jews who immigrated to the United States in the last two centuries.
While Yiddish spoken in Russia and the east is still vigorous, western European Yiddish is dying out. In the U. This means that the underlying message rooted in antisemitism and fear of the other was maintained, establishing a link between the evil intentions of the wolf and Jewish identity. How — and why — this release of the cartoon came to include this particular redacted scene is unclear.
This tie-in between Warner Brothers and Tyson Foods is marketed specifically to children, an example of the pervasive nature of stereotypes — both visual and vocal — common to all animated features, films and cartoons.
In a newspaper interview, the representative particularly objected to the fact that the good guys — Aladdin, Princess Jasmine and her father — talk like Americans, while all the other Arab characters have heavy accents. This pounds home the message that people with a foreign accent are bad Precker b. Any actor necessarily brings to a role his or her own native language.
In many cases, the variety of English we are still focused here on film and theater in the United States is irrelevant to the characterization and can be left alone. While Yiddish spoken in Russia and the east is still vigorous, western European Yiddish is dying out. In the U. This means that the underlying message rooted in antisemitism and fear of the other was maintained, establishing a link between the evil intentions of the wolf and Jewish identity.
How — and why — this release of the cartoon came to include this particular redacted scene is unclear. This tie-in between Warner Brothers and Tyson Foods is marketed specifically to children, an example of the pervasive nature of stereotypes — both visual and vocal — common to all animated features, films and cartoons. In a newspaper interview, the representative particularly objected to the fact that the good guys — Aladdin, Princess Jasmine and her father — talk like Americans, while all the other Arab characters have heavy accents.
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This pounds home the message that people with a foreign accent are bad Precker b. Any actor necessarily brings to a role his or her own native language.
In many cases, the variety of English we are still focused here on film and theater in the United States is irrelevant to the characterization and can be left alone. Some actors have spoken openly about the decision to never attempt to portray an accent other than their own, regardless of the nature of the story or the character.
Jimmy Stewart, John Wayne, Ricky Gervais, Diane Keaton all made or make public statements about their unwillingness to attempt foreign accents. More often, however, the director and actor, working together, will target a particular social, regional or L2 accent, perhaps because it is intrinsic to the role and cannot be sacrificed. In a similar way, non-native speakers of English who come to the U. American actors may undergo accent training of various kinds in an attempt to learn to imitate what they need for a particular role, although there are many examples where this effort fails despite expensive and careful tutoring, even in the limited way it is asked of them during filming.
What is particularly relevant and interesting in this context, however, is the way that actors attempt to manipulate language as a tool in the construction of character, sometimes successfully, sometimes not. Educational programs for the training of actors for stage and screen often include classes on speech, dialogue, and the contrivance of accent. The materials used in actor-oriented accent courses are interesting in and of themselves, because the approach often includes not just the mechanics and technicalities of one particular regional or foreign accent, but also issues of content and approach.
Dialect actors must avoid going so far with certain speech traits that they end up creating ethnic or linguistic stereotypes. Characters with accents must have the same range of choices available to them as characters whose speech is identical to yours Karshner and Stern Preface. This is an enlightened and realistic position, certainly. Other materials prepared for actors are not always so even-handed, as seen in Foreign Dialects: A Manual for Actors, Directors and Writers Herman and Herman .
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The pointers on how to imitate one particular national dialect an abstraction in itself are chock full of stereotypes. In a film set in a country where English is not spoken, the writers and director have to come to an initial decision: they could hire actors who are native speakers of the language that is spoken in that setting and use subtitles; they could have the dialogue spoken in English, each actor using his or her native variety and simply abstracting away from the question of logical language spoken; or the more common approach, at least in recent times: Native English-speaking actors speak English, but sometimes take on the accent of the language they would logically be speaking in the time and setting of the story.
If a French accent is meant to remind viewers that the story is taking place in France, then logic would require that all the characters in that story speak with a French accent. But this is not the case in animated or live action; for the most part, in movies set outside English-speaking countries only a few actors will contrive the accent of that country. All of the major characters speak English with American accents with three exceptions: the sexy chamber maid, the amorous butler, and a temperamental cook are voiced by actors contriving French accents.
The exact opposite approach was taken with The Hunchback of Notre Dame , also set in France; in this case, there were no French accents used, but those voice actors who were portraying the dark-skinned Romani took on inconsistent and unidentifiable linguistic features.
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That is, actors voicing Anglo characters spoke their own varieties of English and made no attempt an accent; those who voiced people of color made a have hearted attempt to sound different. And why? Betsey begins to worry what will happen after the case is over, since they have two separate jobs as she is an FBI agent and Alex is a detective, while Alex promises that things will work out. By the end of the novel, Betsey is murdered by Mastermind, devastating Alex, who swears to avenge her.
In Violets Are Blue , Alex discovers Mastermind's identify as Kyle Craig, and learns that Betsey was getting close to discovering his identity, which comprised the Mastermind's plan for both him and Alex. The Mastermind also reveals that Betsey was falling in love with him. Alex sends the Mastermind to prison for his crimes, declaring justice for Betsey.
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In Mary Mary , while on vacation with his family and Jamilla, Alex investigates a killer known as Mary Smith, which continues to strain their relationship. While on their next date in Los Angeles, Jamilla reveals that she has met another man, while not cheating on him, and is realizing that their long-distance relationship cannot work, whether or not they are in love.
Alex realizes that he has lost her and the two part on good terms, ending their relationship. They both come from North Carolina. The books hint that her real reason to visit is to see him. They share a small kiss in London Bridges. In Mary Mary , after Alex breaks up with Jamilla, they form a relationship. Kayla wants to be near Alex, asking him not to leave the room when she is playing a game with his kids. In Cross , they continue to date and begin to fall in love.
Alex's retirement from the FBI allows him to spend more time with her, strengthening their relationship, until the "Butcher" sends him back to work, believing that this might be his wife's killer. During one house call, Kayla is attacked by a junkie and drives herself to the hospital, where Alex comes and comforts her. When Kayla visits North Carolina, she decides to move there, seeing that she can do more good where she was born. Cross is heartbroken, as he knows that their relationship would end, but supports her decision.
He later regrets not telling her how he feels. After solving his wife's murder, they see each other again, just before she moves. She tries to convince him to move with her, but Cross declines, believing he can't leave Washington, DC behind. They part on good terms. During his time investigating Mary Smith in Mary Mary , Alex and another detective named Jeanne Galleta, who shows interest in him, date once. However, the two just remained friends.
It is revealed that Alex had a relationship with a woman named Eleanor Cox in college, before Maria. Alex states that Eleanor might have been his first love, but before he could find out, their relationship ended. Many years later, Alex discovers that she and her entire family were murdered by a new killer called "Tiger", in Cross Country. He avenges her death by taking down the Tiger.
While the two investigate a mercenary and murderer named Tiger, Adanne takes interest in Alex. When she takes him to meet her family, she says she likes him and they share a kiss. They remain friends, although Adanne continues to show interest in Alex. The Tiger has her family killed as they get closer and has them arrested by the police. As Alex watches, the Tiger kills and rapes her dead body in front of him. Alex avenges Adanne by taking down the Tiger and his associates. After retiring from the FBI and his tearful break up with Kayla, Alex meets detective Bree Stone at a retirement party for a fellow officer, and quickly starts a relationship with her.
By the beginning of Double Cross , they have fallen deeply in love. Bree is portrayed as a beautiful, calm, fun, sexy woman by Alex and also a strong-willed, "stone" detective in the department. She helps him with the Audience Killer and Kyle Craig, who escapes from prison.